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J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 28;57(20):9532-8. doi: 10.1021/jf9018646.

Influence of diets rich in Maillard reaction products on calcium bioavailability. Assays in male adolescents and in Caco-2 cells.

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Unidad de Nutrición Animal, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Camino del Jueves, 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain.


The effects of the high intake of Maillard reaction products (MRP) on calcium availability in adolescents and across Caco-2 cell monolayers were examined. In a 2 week randomized two-period crossover trial, 18 male adolescents consumed two diets, named white diet (WD) and brown diet (BD), which were poor and rich in MRP, respectively. A 3 day balance was performed at the end of each period, and fasting blood samples were collected. Calcium solubility and absorption across Caco-2 cells were studied after the in vitro digestion of the diets. The in vitro assay showed similar solubility after the in vitro digestion and similar transport across Caco-2 cells. In accordance, calcium bioavailability in adolescents did not vary between the diets (%WD = 40.4 +/- 5.1, %BD = 38.2 +/- 3.6). Serum and urine biochemical parameters related to calcium status and bone metabolism remained unaltered. Only deoxypyridinoline values were significantly lower after consumption of the BD (13.0 +/- 1.1 compared to 18.3 +/- 2.1 nM/Mm Cr in the WD), possibly indicative of less efficient bone turnover during this period. As calcium acquired during adolescence is essential to maximize peak bone mass and to prevent osteoporosis, possible long-term effects of excessive MRP intake during this period warrant attention.

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