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Nat Rev Immunol. 2010 Jul;10(7):479-89. doi: 10.1038/nri2800. Epub 2010 Jun 18.

Innate IL-17-producing cells: the sentinels of the immune system.

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Merck Research Laboratories, DNAX Discovery Research, 901 California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.

Erratum in

  • Nat Rev Immunol. 2010 Aug;10(8):611.
  • Nat Rev Immunol. 2010 Jul;10(7):following 489.


The cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) has received considerable attention since the discovery of a distinct CD4(+) T helper (T(H)) cell subset that produces it, known as the T(H)17 cell subset. Despite the fact that most of the recent literature describes IL-17 as a T cell-secreted cytokine, much of the IL-17 released during an inflammatory response is produced by innate immune cells. In this Review, we explore the many innate immune cell populations that are an early source of IL-17 in response to stress, injury or pathogens. These early sources have been shown to have a central role in the initiation of IL-17-dependent immune responses, even before the first CD4(+)T cell sees its cognate antigen and initiates the T(H)17 cell developmental programme.

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