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J Oral Rehabil. 2011 Jan;38(1):3-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2010.02118.x.

Self-reported bruxism - associations with perceived stress, motivation for control, dental anxiety and gagging.

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Department of Oral Rehabilitation, Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.


To examine possible associations between self-reported bruxism, stress, desirability of control, dental anxiety and gagging. Five questionnaires were distributed among a general adult population (402 respondents): the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Desirability of Control Scale (DC), Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), Gagging Assessment Scale (GAS), and Bruxism Assessment Questionnaire. A high positive correlation between DAS and GAS (R = 0·604, P < 0·001) was found. PSS was negatively correlated with DC (R = -0·292, P < 0·001), and was positively correlated with GAS (R = 0·217, P < 0·001) and DAS (R = 0·214, P < 0·001). Respondents who reported bruxing while awake or asleep showed higher levels of GAS, DAS and PSS than those who did not. There were no differences between the bruxers and the non-bruxers (sleep and aware) with regard to the DC scores. The best predictors of awake bruxism were sleep bruxism (OR = 4·98, CI 95% 2·54-9·74) and GAS (OR = 1·10, CI 95% 1·04-1·17). The best predictors of sleep bruxism were awake bruxism (OR = 5·0, CI 95% 2·56-9·78) and GAS (OR = 1·19; CI 95% 1·11-1·27). Self-reported sleep bruxism significantly increases the odds for awake bruxism and vice versa. Tendency for gagging during dental care slightly increases the odds of both types of self-reported bruxism, but desirability of control is not associated with these phenomena.

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