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CA Cancer J Clin. 2010 Jul-Aug;60(4):222-43. doi: 10.3322/caac.20075. Epub 2010 Jun 16.

Angiogenesis inhibitors: current strategies and future prospects.

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Molecular Pharmacology Section, Medical Oncology Branch and Affiliates, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


Angiogenesis has become an attractive target for drug therapy because of its key role in tumor growth. An extensive array of compounds is currently in preclinical development, with many now entering the clinic and/or achieving approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. Several regulatory and signaling molecules governing angiogenesis are of interest, including growth factors (eg, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor), receptor tyrosine kinases, and transcription factors such as hypoxia inducible factor, as well as molecules involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Pharmacologic agents have been identified that target these pathways, yet for some agents (notably thalidomide), an understanding of the specific mechanisms of antitumor action has proved elusive. The following review describes key molecular mechanisms and novel therapies that are on the horizon for antiangiogenic tumor therapy.

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