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Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2010 Dec;31(4):303-7. doi: 10.1097/PAF.0b013e3181e792eb.

Two-handed cardiopulmonary resuscitation can cause rib fractures in infants.

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Alberta Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.


The discovery of acute rib fractures in deceased infants and young children can be unsettling. Although significant injuries may occur subsequent to resuscitative efforts in adults, it is well documented that such injuries are rare in much younger individuals. In particular, it is considered exceptional for rib fractures to follow cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on an infant; thus, some pathologists will consider such a discovery to be evidence of abuse. However, little is known about what, if any, injuries might occur subsequent to the delivery of "2-handed" CPR. Five unrelated, nonsequential cases of infant death are reported where multiple acute anterolateral rib arc fractures followed 2-handed CPR delivered by trained medical personnel.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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