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EuroIntervention. 2010 May;6(1):106-11. doi: 10.4244/.

Incidence, predictors and prognostic importance of bleeding after primary PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

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Isala klinieken, Location Weezenlanden, Department of Cardiology, Zwolle, The Netherlands.



To investigate incidence, predictors and prognosis of bleeding in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).


A large scale, prospective, observational study was performed between 1991 and 2004 in a single teaching hospital in The Netherlands including all consecutive STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI. The independent association between both major and minor bleeding and one year mortality was evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 5,030 patients were included, of whom 109 patients (2%) had cardiac surgery within 48 hours. Data on bleeding <48 hours were available in 4,717 patients (96%). Of these, 80 (1.6%) had major bleeding, whereas minor bleeding was observed in 266 patients (5.6%). Independent predictors of minor bleeding were advanced age, multivessel disease, Killip class > or = 2 on admission, anterior MI location and TIMI 0 flow before PCI. Killip class > or = 2 on admission was an independent predictor of major bleeding. Major bleeding (HR 3.5 [95% CI 2.3-5.4]) was associated with an increased risk of death at one year.


After primary PCI, the incidence of major bleeding is less than 2%. Although relatively infrequent, major bleeding complications are strongly and independently related to short- and midterm mortality.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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