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Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010 Nov 30;174(1-2):4-28. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2010.06.001. Epub 2010 Jun 11.

An integrative model of respiratory and cardiovascular control in sleep-disordered breathing.

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Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1111, USA.


While many physiological control models exist in the literature, none thus far has focused on characterizing the interactions among the respiratory, cardiovascular and sleep-wake regulation systems that occur in sleep-disordered breathing. The model introduced in this study integrates the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system, chemoreflex and state-related control of respiration, including respiratory and upper airway mechanics, along with a model of circadian and sleep-wake regulation. The integrative model provides realistic predictions of the physiological responses under a variety of conditions including: the sleep-wake cycle, hypoxia-induced periodic breathing, Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure, and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It can be used to investigate the effects of a variety of interventions, such as isocapnic and hypercapnic and/or hypoxic gas administration, the Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers, and the application of continuous positive airway pressure on OSA subjects. By being able to delineate the influences of the various interacting physiological mechanisms, the model is useful in providing a more lucid understanding of the complex dynamics that characterize state-cardiorespiratory control in the different forms of sleep-disordered breathing.

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