Send to

Choose Destination
Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Oct 6;188(1):75-85. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2010.06.001. Epub 2010 Jun 9.

Suppression of NF-kappaB and GSK-3beta is involved in colon cancer cell growth inhibition by the PPAR agonist troglitazone.

Author information

College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 48 Gaesin-dong, Heungduk-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763, Republic of Korea.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists such as troglitazone, pioglitazone and thiazolidine have been shown to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. The molecular mechanism of PPARgamma agonist-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells, however, is not clear. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) is an indispensable element for the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) which plays a critical role in the mediation of survival signals in cancer cells. To investigate the mechanisms of PPARgamma agonist-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells, we examined the effect of troglitazone (0-16muM) on the activation of GSK-3beta and NF-kappaB. Our study showed that the inhibitory effect of troglitazone on colon cancer cell growth was associated with inhibition of NF-kappaB activity and GSK-3beta expression in a dose-dependent manner. Cells were arrested in G(0)/G(1) phase followed by the induction of apoptosis after treatment of troglitazone with concomitant decrease in the expression of the G(0)/G(1) phase regulatory proteins; Cdk2, Cdk4, cyclin B1, D1, and E as well as in the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 along with an increase in the expression of the pro-apoptosis-associated proteins; Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and Bax. Transient transfection of GSK-3beta recovered troglitazone-induced cell growth inhibition and NF-kappaB inactivation. In contrast, co-treatment of troglitazone with a GSK-3beta inhibitor (AR-a014418) or siRNA against GSK-3beta, significantly augmented the inhibitory effect of troglitazone on the NF-kappaB activity, the cancer cell growth and on the expression of G(0)/G(1) phase regulatory proteins and pro-apoptosis regulatory proteins. These results suggest that the PPARgamma agonist, troglitazone, inhibits colon cancer cell growth via inactivation of NF-kappaB by suppressing GSK-3beta activity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center