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Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2010 Jun 15;42(6):363-9.

MicroRNAs and prostate cancer.

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Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by mainly binding to 30 untranslated region (UTR) of target mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have demonstrated that aberrant expressions of miRNAs are closely associated with the development, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of various cancers including prostate cancer (PCa). The proposed molecular mechanisms that underlie the aberrant expression of miRNAs result from gene changes, epigenetic modification and alteration of Dicer abundance. Although up to 50 miRNAs have been reported to be significantly expressed in human PCa, only a small number of them were experimentally shown to make contribution to the pathogenesis of PCa. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanisms of several known miRNAs, summarize recent studies on the relevance of altered expression of oncogenic miRNAs (e.g. miR-221/-222, miR-21, and miR-125b) and tumor suppressor miRNAs (e.g. miR-101, miR-126*, miR-146a, miR-330, miR-34 cluster, and miR-200 family) for PCa. Additionally, their potential clinical applications and prospects in PCa, such as biomarkers and clinical therapies, are also briefly discussed.

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