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Blood. 2010 Sep 30;116(13):2205-14. doi: 10.1182/blood-2010-01-261800. Epub 2010 Jun 10.

A review on allogeneic stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

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1
Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Survival of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has improved considerably over the past decades. Since 1985, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is widely recommended for patients who have a matched sibling donor. However, it remains controversial whether allo-SCT is superior to chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed AML. This review summarizes phase 3 clinical trials that compared allo-SCT with chemotherapy (including autologous SCT) in pediatric AML, excluding studies that did not use the intention-to-treat analysis or correct for time-to-transplantation. Although allo-SCT might prevent more relapses than chemotherapy, the number needed for transplantation (with allo-SCT) to prevent one relapse is in the order of 10 patients. Moreover, overall survival is similar with both methods in most recent studies, apparently because of increased salvagability of a relapse when initial therapy concerned chemotherapy only, and because of a higher treatment-related mortality with allo-SCT. Because allo-SCT also gives more severe side effects and results more often in secondary malignancies than chemotherapy, we do not recommend allo-SCT in first remission for pediatric AML in general. Further research should focus on the possibility that subgroups might benefit from allo-SCT, aiming at further improvements in the prognosis of pediatric AML.

PMID:
20538803
DOI:
10.1182/blood-2010-01-261800
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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