Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Psychiatry Res. 2011 Jan 30;185(1-2):205-10. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2009.03.019. Epub 2010 May 26.

Features and prevalence of patients with probable adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who request treatment for cocaine use disorders.

Author information

Addictive Behaviors Unit (Psychiatry Department), Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.


To characterize those patients with probable adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who ask for treatment of cocaine use disorders; to estimate the prevalence of probable adult ADHD among these patients. This is a cross-sectional and multi-center study performed at outpatient resources of 12 addiction treatment centers in Spain. Participants were treatment-seeking primary cocaine abusers recruited consecutively at one center and through convenience sampling at the other centers. Assessments included semi-structured clinical interview focused on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) ADHD criteria adapted to adulthood, and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for screening childhood history of ADHD according to patients. Probable adult ADHD was diagnosed when patients met DSM-IV criteria of ADHD in adulthood and scored WURS>32. All participants were diagnosed with current cocaine dependence (n=190) or abuse (n=15). Patients with probable adult ADHD, compared with patients having no lifetime ADHD, were more frequently male, reported higher impulsivity, and began to use nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, or cocaine earlier. Before starting the current treatment, patients with probable adult ADHD also showed higher cocaine craving for the previous day, less frequent cocaine abstinence throughout the previous week, and higher use of cocaine and tobacco during the previous month. Impulsivity and male gender were the only independent risk factors of probable adult ADHD in a logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of probable adult ADHD was 20.5% in the sub-sample of patients consecutively recruited (n=78). A diagnosis of probable adult ADHD strongly distinguishes among treatment-seeking cocaine primary abusers regarding past and current key aspects of their addictive disorder; one-fifth of these patients present with probable adult ADHD.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center