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Transplant Proc. 2010 May;42(4):1171-3. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.03.070.

Clinical features of hemorrhoidal disease in renal transplant recipients.

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Vascular Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Transplantation and Advanced Technologies, University Hospital of Catania, Italy.


Hemorrhoidal disease is a frequent cause of morbidity among the general population with a reported incidence of 4.4%, but little is known about its incidence and clinical features in kidney transplant recipients. Among 116 patients who had undergone kidney transplantation and were evaluated for hemorrhoidal disease, 82 had no hemorrhoids (70.6%), 28 (24%) had grade I hemorrhoids, and 6 (5.4%) had grade II hemorrhoids at the pretransplantation evaluation. Twenty-seven out of 116 recipients (22.4%) developed grade III or IV hemorrhoids after transplantation and underwent surgery. Hemorrhoidal disease was more frequent in patients with a pretransplantation history of hemorrhoids, with a rapid weight increase in the posttransplantation period, or who were aged between 30 and 50 years. Immunosuppressive therapy may play an important role in the worsening of hemorrhoidal disease among kidney transplant recipients. A prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment, whenever necessary, is mandatory for patients with clinical signs of worsening of hemorrhoids.

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