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Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Jun 15;20(12):3467-74. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.05.009.

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

Author information

1
Università degli Studi di Firenze, Laboratorio di Chimica Bioinorganica, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy. claudiu.supuran@unifi.it

Abstract

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are widespread enzymes in all organisms, catalyzing CO2 hydration to bicarbonate and protons. Their inhibition is exploited clinically for decades for various classes of diuretics and systemically acting antiglaucoma agents. In the last years novel applications of CA inhibitors (CAIs) emerged, such as topically acting antiglaucoma, anticonvulsants, antiobesity, antipain, and antitumor agents/diagnostic tools. Such CAIs target diverse isozymes of the 13 catalytically active alpha-CA isoforms present in mammals. CAs belonging to the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-, and zeta-families are found in many organisms all over the phylogenetic tree, and their inhibition was studied ultimately for some pathogenic protozoa (Plasmodium falciparum), fungi (Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and bacteria (Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Brucella suis). Novel interesting chemotypes, in addition to the sulfonamide and sulfamate CAIs, such as coumarins, phenols, and fullerenes, were also reported recently, together with their mechanism of inhibition. This class of enzyme inhibitors shows promise for designing interesting pharmacological agents and understanding in detail protein-drug interactions at molecular level.

PMID:
20529676
DOI:
10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.05.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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