Send to

Choose Destination
BMC Cancer. 2010 Jun 4;10:256. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-256.

Immunophenotypic features of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from mammary carcinomas in female dogs associated with prognostic factors and survival rates.

Author information

Departamento de Patologia e Clinicas, Escola de Medicina Veterinaria- Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil.



The immune system plays an important role in the multifactorial biologic system during the development of neoplasias. However, the involvement of the inflammatory response in the promotion/control of malignant cells is still controversial, and the cell subsets and the mechanisms involved are poorly investigated. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical-pathological status and the immunophenotyping profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and their association with the animal survival rates in canine mammary carcinomas.


Fifty-one animals with mammary carcinomas, classified as carcinomas in mixed tumors-MC-BMT = 31 and carcinomas-MC = 20 were submitted to systematic clinical-pathological analysis (tumor size; presence of lymph node and pulmonary metastasis; clinical stage; histological grade; inflammatory distribution and intensity as well as the lymphocytic infiltrate intensity) and survival rates. Twenty-four animals (MC-BMT = 16 and MC = 8) were elected to the immunophenotypic study performed by flow cytometry.


Data analysis demonstrated that clinical stage II-IV and histological grade was I more frequent in MC-BMT as compared to MC. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the intensity of inflammation (moderate/intense) and the proportion of CD4+ (> or = 66.7%) or CD8+ T-cells (<33.3%) were not associated with worse survival rate. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only lymphocytic infiltrate intensity > or = 600 (P = 0.02) remained as independent prognostic factor. Despite the clinical manifestation, the lymphocytes represented the predominant cell type in the tumor infiltrate. The percentage of T-cells was higher in animals with MC-BMT without metastasis, while the percentage of B-lymphocytes was greater in animals with metastasized MC-BMT (P < 0.05). The relative percentage of CD4+ T-cells was significantly greater in metastasized tumors (both MC-BMT and MC), (P < 0.05) while the proportion of CD8+ T-cells was higher in MC-BMT without metastasis. Consequently, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was significantly increased in both groups with metastasis. Regardless of the tumor type, the animals with high proportions of CD4+ and low CD8+ T-cells had decreased survival rates.


The intensity of lymphocytic infiltrate and probably the relative abundance of the CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes may represent important survival prognostic biomarkers for canine mammary carcinomas.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center