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Mol Biol Cell. 2010 Aug 1;21(15):2611-23. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E10-03-0235. Epub 2010 Jun 2.

Adenomatous polyposis coli regulates endothelial cell migration independent of roles in beta-catenin signaling and cell-cell adhesion.

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Department of Biology, The James H. Clark Center, Bio-X Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a tumor suppressor commonly mutated in cancer, is a cytoskeletal organizer for cell migration and a scaffold for GSK3 beta/CKI-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of the Wnt effector beta-catenin. It remains unclear whether these different APC functions are coupled, or independently regulated and localized. In primary endothelial cells, we show that GSK3 beta/CKI-phosphorylated APC localizes to microtubule-dependent clusters at the tips of membrane extensions. Loss of GSK3 beta/CKI-phosphorylated APC from these clusters correlates with a decrease in cell migration. GSK3 beta/CKI-phosphorylated APC and beta-catenin at clusters is degraded rapidly by the proteasome, but inhibition of GSK3 beta/CKI does not increase beta-catenin-mediated transcription. GSK3 beta/CKI-phosphorylated and -nonphosphorylated APC also localize along adherens junctions, which requires actin and cell-cell adhesion. Significantly, inhibition of cell-cell adhesion results in loss of lateral membrane APC and a concomitant increase in GSK3 beta/CKI-phosphorylated APC in clusters. These results uncouple different APC functions and show that GSK3 beta/CKI phosphorylation regulates APC clusters and cell migration independently of cell-cell adhesion and beta-catenin transcriptional activity.

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