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Inflamm Res. 2010 Nov;59(11):897-905. doi: 10.1007/s00011-010-0220-6. Epub 2010 Jun 2.

The complement cascade as a mediator of tissue growth and regeneration.

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Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


Recent evidence has demonstrated that the complement cascade is involved in a variety of physiologic and pathophysiologic processes in addition to its role as an immune effector. Research in a variety of organ systems has shown that complement proteins are direct participants in maintenance of cellular turnover, healing, proliferation and regeneration. As a physiologic housekeeper, complement proteins maintain tissue integrity in the absence of inflammation by disposing of cellular debris and waste, a process critical to the prevention of autoimmune disease. Developmentally, complement proteins influence pathways including hematopoietic stem cell engraftment, bone growth, and angiogenesis. They also provide a potent stimulus for cellular proliferation including regeneration of the limb and eye in animal models, and liver proliferation following injury. Here, we describe the complement cascade as a mediator of tissue growth and regeneration.

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