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Psychiatry Res. 2011 May 30;187(3):341-6. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2010.04.049. Epub 2010 May 26.

Expression of anti-cardiolipin antibodies and inflammatory associated factors in patients with schizophrenia.

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  • 1Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.


Numerous studies have implicated a connection between schizophrenia and autoimmune disorders. However, the precise relationship and underlying mechanism are still obscure. To further identify the association between autoimmune disorders and schizophrenia, the mRNA expressions of various cytokines and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in monocytes are examined by using RT-PCR. Additionally, ELISA and zymography were performed to determine the anti-cardiolipin antibody (aCL) and MMP9 activity in serum form schizophrenic patients. Notably, significantly increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 mRNA were observed in schizophrenic patients, whereas significant reductions of TLR-3 and TLR-5 mRNA were detected. Moreover, significantly increased levels of aCL antibody and a higher frequency of positive-MMP9 activity were detected in serum from patients with schizophrenia. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between each of the medications and aCL activity. These findings demonstrated autoimmune-related phenomena in schizophrenic patients and further suggested a connection between schizophrenia and autoimmune disorders.

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