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Cortex. 2012 Jan;48(1):7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2010.04.006. Epub 2010 Apr 29.

Harvey Cushing's contributions to motor mapping: 1902-1912.

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Department of Neurosurgery and Oncology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.


This review examined Dr. Harvey Cushing's cases in the surgical records of Johns Hopkins Hospital, from 1896 to 1912. 41 patients who underwent cortical stimulation for intra-operative motor mapping were selected for further analysis. We demonstrate that Cushing used cortical stimulation to define primary motor and sensory cortices in the treatment of tumors, trauma, and epilepsy, within adult and pediatric populations. In addition, he performed stimulation of sub-cortical white matter during 4 of these surgeries, setting the stage for contemporary use of this technique in improving post-operative outcomes. This review of Cushing's early intra-operative motor mapping illuminates his contributions, and clarifies his influence on the evolution of cortical mapping from an experimental technique to a staple of contemporary neurosurgery.

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