Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Genome Res. 2010 Aug;20(8):1010-9. doi: 10.1101/gr.103259.109. Epub 2010 May 27.

Signatures of RNA binding proteins globally coupled to effective microRNA target sites.

Author information

1
The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, and Biotech Research and Innovation Centre (BRIC), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark.

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), bound to Argonaute proteins (RISC), destabilize mRNAs through base-pairing with the mRNA. However, the gene expression changes after perturbations of these small RNAs are only partially explained by predicted miRNA/siRNA targeting. Targeting may be modulated by other mRNA sequence elements such as binding sites for the hundreds of RNA binding proteins (RNA-BPs) expressed in any cell, and this aspect has not been systematically explored. Across a panel of published experiments, we systematically investigated to what extent sequence motifs in 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) correlate with expression changes following transfection of small RNAs. The most significantly overrepresented motifs in down-regulated mRNAs are two novel U-rich motifs (URMs), UUUUAAA and UUUGUUU, recently discovered as binding sites for the ELAVL4 (also known as HuD) RNA-BP. Surprisingly, the most significantly overrepresented motif in up-regulated mRNAs is the heptanucleotide AU-rich element (ARE), UAUUUAU, which is known to affect mRNA stability via at least 20 different RNA-BPs. We show that destabilization mediated by the transfected miRNA is generally attenuated by ARE motifs and augmented by URM motifs. These ARE and URM signatures were confirmed in different types of published experiments covering eight different cell lines. Finally, we show that both ARE and URM motifs couple to presumed endogenous miRNA binding sites in mRNAs bound by Argonaute proteins. This is the first systematic investigation of 3' UTR motifs that globally couple to regulation by miRNAs and may potentially antagonize or cooperate with miRNA/siRNA regulation. Our results suggest that binding sites of miRNAs and RNA-BPs should be considered in combination when interpreting and predicting miRNA regulation in vivo.

PMID:
20508147
PMCID:
PMC2909566
DOI:
10.1101/gr.103259.109
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center