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Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2010;26:421-44. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100109-104037.

Interactions between nuclei and the cytoskeleton are mediated by SUN-KASH nuclear-envelope bridges.

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1
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA. dastarr@ucdavis.edu

Abstract

The nuclear envelope links the cytoskeleton to structural components of the nucleus. It functions to coordinate nuclear migration and anchorage, organize chromatin, and aid meiotic chromosome pairing. Forces generated by the cytoskeleton are transferred across the nuclear envelope to the nuclear lamina through a nuclear-envelope bridge consisting of SUN (Sad1 and UNC-84) and KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1 and Syne/Nesprin homology) proteins. Some KASH-SUN combinations connect microtubules, centrosomes, actin filaments, or intermediate filaments to the surface of the nucleus. Other combinations are used in cell cycle control, nuclear import, or apoptosis. Interactions between the cytoskeleton and the nucleus also affect global cytoskeleton organization. SUN and KASH proteins were identified through genetic screens for mispositioned nuclei in model organisms. Knockouts of SUN or KASH proteins disrupt neurological and muscular development in mice. Defects in SUN and KASH proteins have been linked to human diseases including muscular dystrophy, ataxia, progeria, lissencephaly, and cancer.

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