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ACS Nano. 2010 Jun 22;4(6):3259-69. doi: 10.1021/nn100280z.

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering hybrid nanoprobe multiplexing and imaging in biological systems.

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Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstatter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin, Germany.


Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) labels and probes consisting of gold and silver nanoaggregates and attached reporter molecules can be identified by the Raman signature of the reporter molecule. At the same time, SERS hybrid probes deliver sensitive molecular structural information on their nanoenvironment. Here we demonstrate full exploitation of the multifunctional and multiplexing capabilities inherent to such nanoprobes by applying cluster methods and principal components approaches for discrimination beyond the visual inspection of individual spectra that has been practiced so far. The reported results indicate that fast, multivariate evaluation of whole sets of multiple probes is feasible. Spectra of five different reporters were shown to be separable by hierarchical clustering and by principal components analysis (PCA). In a duplex imaging approach in live cells, hierarchical cluster analysis, K-means clustering, and PCA were used for imaging the positions of different types of SERS probes along with the spectral information from cellular constituents. Parallel to cellular imaging experiments, cytotoxicity of the SERS hybrid probes containing aromatic thiols as reporters is assessed. The reported results suggest multiplexing applications of the nontoxic SERS nanoprobes in high density sensing and imaging in complex biological structures.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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