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Am J Chin Med. 2010;38(3):613-24.

Brucea javanica oil induces apoptosis in T24 bladder cancer cells via upregulation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and inhibition of NF-kappaB and COX-2 expressions.

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Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hongzhou, China.


The potential molecular mechanism of Brucea javanica oil in the induction of apoptosis of T24 bladder cancer cells was investigated in vitro. T24 cells were divided into two groups: one, treated with B. javanica oil and the other, untreated. The cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and 4 mM glutamine. The morphological characteristics of T24 cells were examined microscopically at the 2nd and 5th day of the culture. The drug toxicity spectrum (IC(50)) was estimated by the MTT assay, and viability of T24 cells was assessed on the basis of the percentage of T24 apoptotic cells, as determined by Annexin/PI staining and flow cytometric analysis. The expression of caspase-3, capase-9, NF-kappaB p65, and COX-2 was analyzed by Western blotting. Morphological characteristics of the cells on the 2nd day showed apoptosis of the treated T24 cells; it was more apparent in the cells on the 5th day. B. javanica oil decreased the cell viability at the testing concentrations spectrum (5-0.156 mg/ml), and this viability was significantly higher as compared to the control group. In this concentration spectrum, B. javanica oil also induced apoptosis of T24 cells, which was analyzed by annexin/PI staining and flow cytometric analysis. These results were also statistically significant as compared to those of the control group. The expressions of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were low in the control T24 cells, while the expressions of NF-kappaB and COX-2 were high in normal T24 cells. Treatment with B. javanica oil significantly induced the expressions of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins in T24 cells, whereas the expressions of NF-kappaB and COX-2 proteins were inhibited. B. javanica oil significantly reduced the viability of T24 cells and induced T24 cell apoptosis. The molecular mechanism underlying these effects may be the activation of caspase apoptotic pathway by upregulation of the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins and inhibition of the expression of NF-kappaB and COX-2 proteins.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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