Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Jun;152A(6):1498-509. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33412.

The course of cognitive-behavioral development in children with the FMR1 mutation, Williams-Beuren syndrome, and neurofibromatosis type 1: The effect of gender.

Author information

NYU College of Dentistry New York, New York 10003, USA.


The course of cognitive-behavioral development in children with intellectual disabilities produced by genetic disorders has only recently begun to be examined systematically. Unfortunately, these studies are few in number. Previously, we examined cognitive-behavioral development in children with the fragile X (FMR1) mutation and found longitudinal decreases in both IQ and adaptive behavior (DQ) scores in most males and females with the full mutation. In this study, we examine longitudinal changes in IQ and DQ in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) by examining differences in composite IQ and DQ scores between the first test (T1) and retest (T2), and compare their developmental trajectory to children with the FMR1 mutation. Sixty-five children with the FMR1 mutation, or NF1, or WBS, ages 4-16 years, were retested two years after initial testing with the Stanford-Binet 4th Edition (SBFE) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS). In addition to significant longitudinal declines in IQ and DQ noted previously in children with the FMR1 mutation, we found significant decreases in IQ in males compared to females in the remainder of our sample. We also observed statistically significant decreases in DQ scores among children the FMR1 mutation, as noted previously, but not among children with NF1 or WBS. Moreover, significant declines were found only among males with the FMR1 mutation. Unlike declines in IQ scores, decreases in DQ were not significantly different between males and females.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center