Send to

Choose Destination
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Oct;36(4):465-70. doi: 10.1002/uog.7674.

Perinatal and early surgical outcome for the fetus with hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a 5-year single institutional experience.

Author information

Fetal Heart Program, The Cardiac Center, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.



To review our experience with the prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Our goal was to establish the benchmark for perinatal and early surgical outcome in the current era, from a center with an aggressive surgical approach and a cohort with a high level of intention-to-treat.


Outcome was assessed in fetuses with HLHS following stratification into high-risk and standard-risk categories. High risk was defined as the presence of any of the following: extracardiac, genetic or chromosomal anomalies; prematurity of < 34 weeks' gestation; additional cardiac findings such as intact or highly restrictive atrial septum, severe degree of tricuspid regurgitation or severe ventricular dysfunction. Standard risk was defined as absence of these risk factors.


Of 240 fetuses evaluated over 5 years, 162 (67.5%) were in the standard-risk group and 78 (32.5%) were in the high-risk group. Of the 240 sets of parents, 38 (15.8%) chose termination or non-intervention at birth at initial prenatal counseling and 185 of the neonates (77.1%) underwent first-stage Norwood surgery with 155 surviving and 30 deaths, giving an overall Norwood operative survival of 83.8%. Breakdown by risk class reveals a significant Norwood operative survival advantage for the standard-risk group (92.8%) over the high-risk group (56.5%) (P < 0.001).


Following prenatal diagnosis of HLHS, families should be strongly encouraged to undertake comprehensive prenatal evaluation in order to obtain an accurate prognosis. One-third have additional risk factors that limit survival outcome, however two-thirds do not and have an excellent chance of early survival.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center