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J Sports Sci. 2010 May;28(7):743-9. doi: 10.1080/02640411003645687.

Profile of isokinetic eccentric-to-concentric strength ratios of shoulder rotator muscles in elite female team handball players.

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Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo/SP, 04023-900, Brazil.


The purpose of this study was to establish the isokinetic profile of shoulder rotator muscles strength in female handball players. Twenty-seven handball players performed concentric and eccentric strength tests of both dominant and non-dominant upper limbs on an isokinetic dynamometer. Internal and external rotator muscles peak torque was assessed at 1.05, 3.14, and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in concentric mode and at 3.14 and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in eccentric mode. Concentric balance ratio and functional ratio were obtained. Bi-lateral deficiency was compared. Concentric strength for internal and external rotation was significantly greater for the dominant than for the non-dominant limb for all speeds (P < or = 0.0001). For eccentric actions, internal rotator muscles were stronger in the dominant than the non-dominant limb (P < or = 0.0001) at both speeds. Concentric balance and functional balance ratios did not differ between sides at 3.14 rad . s(-1) (P = 0.1631), but at 5.23 rad . s(-1) the functional balance ratio in the dominant limb was lower than for the non-dominant limb (P = 0.0500). Although the dominant side was stronger than the non-dominant side, balance concentric ratios remained the same, with only the functional strength ratio different at 5.23 rad . s(-1). Our results suggest that concentric strength exercises be used for internal and external rotators on the non-dominant side, and functional exercise that improves eccentric rotation strength for prevention programmes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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