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Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012 Aug;14(4):612-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2010.00288.x. Epub 2010 May 13.

Tilted implants for the rehabilitation of edentulous jaws: a systematic review.

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Researcher, Head of Section of Oral Physiology, Department of Health Technologies, Center of Research in Oral Implantology, University of Milano, Milan, Italy.



The aim of this review was to evaluate the survival rate of upright and tilted implants supporting fixed prosthetic reconstructions for the immediate rehabilitation of partially and fully edentulous jaws, after at least 1 year of function.


An electronic search of databases plus a hand search on the most relevant journals up to December 2009 was performed. The articles were selected using specific inclusion criteria, independent of the study design.


The literature search yielded 347 articles. A first screening based on the title and abstract identified 25 eligible studies. After full-text review of these studies, 10 articles were selected for analysis. Seven were prospective single-cohort studies and three had a retrospective design. A total of 462 patients have been rehabilitated with 470 immediately loaded prostheses (257 in the maxilla, 213 in the mandible), supported by a total of 1,992 implants (1,026 upright and 966 tilted). Twenty-five implants (1.25%) failed in 20 patients within the first year. All failures except one occurred in the maxilla. No significant difference in failure rate was found between tilted and upright implants, nor between maxillary and mandibular implants. No prosthesis failure was reported. Limited peri-implant bone loss was reported with no difference between upright and tilted implants. Full patients' satisfaction for function, phonetics, and esthetics was reported in three studies, based on questionnaires.


The use of tilted implants to support immediately loaded fixed prostheses for the rehabilitation of edentulous jaws can be considered a predictable technique, with an excellent prognosis in the short-medium term. However, randomized long-term trials are needed to determine the efficacy of this surgical approach.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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