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Brain Struct Funct. 2010 Jun;214(5-6):451-63. doi: 10.1007/s00429-010-0258-9. Epub 2010 May 21.

Interoception in anxiety and depression.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, 8939 Villa La Jolla Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. mpaulus@ucsd.edu

Abstract

We review the literature on interoception as it relates to depression and anxiety, with a focus on belief, and alliesthesia. The connection between increased but noisy afferent interoceptive input, self-referential and belief-based states, and top-down modulation of poorly predictive signals is integrated into a neuroanatomical and processing model for depression and anxiety. The advantage of this conceptualization is the ability to specifically examine the interface between basic interoception, self-referential belief-based states, and enhanced top-down modulation to attenuate poor predictability. We conclude that depression and anxiety are not simply interoceptive disorders but are altered interoceptive states as a consequence of noisily amplified self-referential interoceptive predictive belief states.

PMID:
20490545
PMCID:
PMC2886901
DOI:
10.1007/s00429-010-0258-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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