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J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010 May;46(3):244-51. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.09-128. Epub 2010 Apr 10.

Protection by Exogenously Added Coenzyme Q(9) against Free Radical-Induced Injuries in Human Liver Cells.

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Division of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago 683-8503, Japan.


Reduced coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)H(2)) is known as a potent antioxidant in biological systems. However, it is not yet known whether CoQ(9)H(2) could act as an antioxidant in human cells. The aim of this study is to assess whether exogenously added CoQ(9) can protect human liver cells against injuries induced by a water-soluble radical initiator, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and a lipid-soluble radical initiator, 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN). CoQ(9)-enriched cells were obtained by treatment of HepG2 cells with 10 microM CoQ(9) liposomes for 24 h. CoQ(9)-enriched cells were exposed to 10 mM AAPH and 500 microM AMVN over 4 h and 24 h, respectively. The loss of viability after treatment with AAPH or AMVN was much less in CoQ(9)-enriched cells than in naive HepG2 cells. The decrease in glutathione and the increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance after treatment with AAPH or AMVN were also suppressed in CoQ(9)-enriched cells. The incubation of CoQ(9)-enriched cells with AAPH or AMVN led to a decrease in cellular CoQ(9)H(2) and reciprocal increase in cellular CoQ(9) resulting from its antioxidant function. Taken together, it was demonstrated for the first time that exogenously added CoQ(9) could prevent oxidative stress-mediated damage to human cells by virtue of its antioxidant activity.


antioxidant; coenzyme Q9; free radical; human liver cells

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