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Addict Behav. 2010 Sep;35(9):811-7. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.03.020. Epub 2010 Apr 10.

Individualized smoking cessation treatment in an outpatient setting: Predictors of outcome in a sample with psychiatric and addictions co-morbidity.

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Addictions Program and Nicotine Dependence Clinic, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 2S1.



Patients with psychiatric disorders have higher rates of smoking and greater difficulty quitting smoking. However, few studies have compared patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders to patients with other psychiatric diagnoses without psychosis, addressing ability to quit and differences in treatment characteristics.


A retrospective chart review was conducted on a sample of 165 cigarette smokers admitted to an outpatient smoking cessation clinic located in a large inner-city psychiatric hospital. Patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (n=55) were matched for age and sex at a ratio of 1:2 with a comparison group without psychosis (n=110) from the same clinic. Primary outcomes of interest were quit status (7-day point prevalence) and significant reduction in cigarettes per day (>or=50% but not quit) at final treatment session.


There were no significant differences between groups for end-of-treatment quit rate or significant reduction (>or=50%) in cigarettes per day. Patients with schizophrenia made significantly more visits to the clinic and were in treatment for a longer period of time. A greater number of individual treatment sessions and being male were the most significant predictors of cessation.


Patients with schizophrenia were as likely to quit smoking as a comparison group of patients with a high rate of other psychiatric comorbidities without psychosis. Findings suggest treatment success in this population requires an extended number of clinic visits, group therapy, and possibly higher doses of nicotine replacement.

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