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J Urol. 2010 Jul;184(1):286-91. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.01.061. Epub 2010 May 20.

The Swedish reflux trial in children: III. Urinary tract infection pattern.

Author information

1
Pediatric Uro-Nephrologic Center, Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

We evaluated the difference in the febrile urinary tract infection rate in small children with dilating vesicoureteral reflux randomly allocated to 3 management alternatives, including antibiotic prophylaxis, endoscopic treatment or surveillance only as the control.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

At 23 centers a total of 203 children were included in the study, including 128 girls and 75 boys 1 to younger than 2 years. Vesicoureteral reflux grade III in 126 cases and IV in 77 was detected after a febrile urinary tract infection (194) after prenatal screening (9). Voiding cystourethrography and dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy were done before randomization and after 2 years. The febrile urinary tract infection rate was analyzed by the intent to treat principle.

RESULTS:

We noted a total of 67 febrile recurrences in 42 girls and a total of 8 in 7 boys (p = 0.0001). There was a difference in the recurrence rate among treatment groups in girls with febrile infection in 8 of 43 (19%) on prophylaxis, 10 of 43 (23%) with endoscopic therapy and 24 of 42 (57%) on surveillance (p = 0.0002). In girls the recurrence rate was associated with persistent reflux after 2 years (p = 0.0095). However, reflux severity (grade III or IV) at study entry did not predict recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this randomized, controlled trial there was a high rate of recurrent febrile urinary tract infection in girls older than 1 year with dilating vesicoureteral reflux at study entry but not in boys. Antibiotic prophylaxis and endoscopic treatment decreased the infection rate.

PMID:
20488494
DOI:
10.1016/j.juro.2010.01.061
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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