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J Urol. 2010 Jul;184(1):286-91. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2010.01.061. Epub 2010 May 20.

The Swedish reflux trial in children: III. Urinary tract infection pattern.

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Pediatric Uro-Nephrologic Center, Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.



We evaluated the difference in the febrile urinary tract infection rate in small children with dilating vesicoureteral reflux randomly allocated to 3 management alternatives, including antibiotic prophylaxis, endoscopic treatment or surveillance only as the control.


At 23 centers a total of 203 children were included in the study, including 128 girls and 75 boys 1 to younger than 2 years. Vesicoureteral reflux grade III in 126 cases and IV in 77 was detected after a febrile urinary tract infection (194) after prenatal screening (9). Voiding cystourethrography and dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy were done before randomization and after 2 years. The febrile urinary tract infection rate was analyzed by the intent to treat principle.


We noted a total of 67 febrile recurrences in 42 girls and a total of 8 in 7 boys (p = 0.0001). There was a difference in the recurrence rate among treatment groups in girls with febrile infection in 8 of 43 (19%) on prophylaxis, 10 of 43 (23%) with endoscopic therapy and 24 of 42 (57%) on surveillance (p = 0.0002). In girls the recurrence rate was associated with persistent reflux after 2 years (p = 0.0095). However, reflux severity (grade III or IV) at study entry did not predict recurrence.


In this randomized, controlled trial there was a high rate of recurrent febrile urinary tract infection in girls older than 1 year with dilating vesicoureteral reflux at study entry but not in boys. Antibiotic prophylaxis and endoscopic treatment decreased the infection rate.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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