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FEBS J. 2010 Jun;277(11):2390-402. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07653.x. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Cytoskeleton-modulating effectors of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Tir, EspFU and actin pedestal assembly.

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Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.


A variety of microbes manipulate the cytoskeleton of mammalian cells to promote their internalization, motility and/or spread. Among such bacteria, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli are closely related pathogens that adhere to human intestinal cells and reorganize the underlying actin cytoskeleton into 'pedestals'. The assembly of pedestals is likely to be an important step in colonization, and is triggered by the E. coli virulence factors translocated intimin receptor and E. coli secreted protein F in prophage U, which modulate multiple host signaling cascades that lead to actin polymerization. In recent years, these bacterial effectors have been exploited as powerful experimental tools for investigating actin cytoskeletal and membrane dynamics, and several studies have significantly advanced our understanding of the regulation of actin assembly in mammalian cells and the potential role of pedestal formation in pathogenesis.

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