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Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;66(9):859-64. doi: 10.1007/s00228-010-0831-4. Epub 2010 May 16.

Discovery of the nonfunctional CYP2D6 31 allele in Spanish, Puerto Rican, and US Hispanic populations.

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Division of Developmental Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, Children's Mercy Hospital and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.

Erratum in

  • Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Jan;67(1):101. Dosage error in article text.



CYP2D6 31 (4042G>A, R(440)H) is an allelic variant of the highly polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme that has been associated with reduced functional activity. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared AmpliChip CYP450 test detects the 4042G>A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) but an allele assignment could not be made in two Spanish and two Puerto Rican individuals heterozygous for 4042G>A, resulting in no-calls. We aimed to resolve the CYP2D6 31 no-calls, determine the allele haplotype, and corroborate that CYP2D6 31 is associated with a poor metabolizer phenotype.


CYP2D6 genotyping was carried out using the AmpliChip CYP450 test and long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) platforms. Allele haplotype was determined by cloning and sequence analysis. Allele frequencies were determined in five population samples.


A 6.6-kb long-range PCR product comprising the entire CYP2D6 gene and flanking regions was sequenced to determine the CYP2D6 31 haplotype. Identical sequences were obtained from both Puerto Ricans selected for sequence analysis. One Spanish individual with a CYP2D6 4/31 genotype was phenotyped as a poor metabolizer with the CYP2D6 probe drug dextromethorphan (urinary ratio DM/DX=0.71). The frequency of CYP2D6 31 was determined in 176 Spanish (0.57%), 50 Puerto Rican (2.0%), and 150 Hispanic (0.33%) people. CYP2D6 31 was absent in 237 North American Caucasians and 154 African Americans.


CYP2D6 31 was associated with poor metabolism of dextromethorphan in vivo, which is consistent with a previous report classifying this allelic variant as nonfunctional. The discovery of CYP2D6 31 in Spanish people only (or of Spanish ancestry) suggests that it may contribute to CYP2D6 variability in individuals of Spanish ancestry.

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