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J Hypertens. 2010 Aug;28(8):1699-707. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32833a7de6.

Increased arterial stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the Cardio-GOOSE study.

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Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, INSERM U961, University of Nancy, Nancy, France.



Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a very frequent disease in Western countries. NAFLD shares with metabolic syndrome the same etiologic factors, such as obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, which are also major cardiovascular risk factors. Cardio-GOOSE (Cardio-Gambettola ObservatOry liver Steatosis Estimation) is a population-based cohort study finalized to evaluate the relationship between NAFLD, subclinical vascular damage, and arterial stiffness.


The study population consisted of 220 participants (123 women), aged between 30 and 70 years, who participated in the GOOSE study. Arterial stiffness was determined by measuring the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) by means of the PulsePen device. Preclinical atherosclerosis was detected by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement.


NAFLD was associated with metabolic syndrome in 48% of cases. IMT values were strongly related to metabolic syndrome factors. No significant differences in IMT were found between controls and patients with isolated NAFLD (0.77 +/- 0.15 mm versus 0.76 +/- 0.14 mm). Conversely, in patients with NAFLD associated with metabolic syndrome, IMT values were significantly higher than in patients with NAFLD alone (0.85 +/- 0.16 mm, P < 0.005). PWV values were significantly lower in controls compared to patients with isolated NAFLD (7.40 +/- 1.47 versus 7.98 +/- 1.51 m/s, P < 0.05) as well as patients with both NAFLD and metabolic syndrome (8.29 +/- 2.2 m/s, P < 0.001). The prevalence in NAFLD was increased in patients with the highest PWV values, and persisted after adjustment for factors determining metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05).


This study has shown a possible independent role of NAFLD in determining arterial stiffness.

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