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Steroids. 2010 Aug-Sep;75(8-9):520-3. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2010.05.004. Epub 2010 May 11.

Environmental hormones: Multiple pathways for response may lead to multiple disease outcomes.

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Division of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Xavier University of Louisiana, United States.


Compounds that mimic vertebrate hormone responses are found throughout the environment, and some are implicated in endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruption has been found in humans, wildlife, and even in the partnership of plants and root symbionts. Most endocrine disruption occurs in estrogenic systems. Estrogens, like other steroid hormones, binds a transcription factor known as a nuclear receptor to regulate gene transcription. Recent research has shown that there are other signaling mechanisms for steroid hormones that involve kinase pathways and G protein-coupled receptors. Mounting evidence suggests estrogen mimics can also act by these pathways which work outside the nucleus. Differential expression of these pathways across cell types, and differential affinity for these pathways by diverse compounds may explain some patterns of endocrine disruption and disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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