Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Gene Ther. 2010 Oct;17(10):1270-8. doi: 10.1038/gt.2010.74. Epub 2010 May 13.

Increased interstitial pressure improves nucleic acid delivery to skin enabling a comparative analysis of constitutive promoters.

Author information

Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.


Nucleic acid-based therapies hold great promise for treatment of skin disorders if delivery challenges can be overcome. To investigate one mechanism of nucleic acid delivery to keratinocytes, a fixed mass of expression plasmid was intradermally injected into mouse footpads in different volumes, and reporter expression was monitored by intravital imaging or skin sectioning. Reporter gene expression increased with higher delivery volumes, suggesting that pressure drives nucleic acid uptake into cells after intradermal injections similar to previously published studies for muscle and liver. For spatiotemporal analysis of reporter gene expression, a dual-axis confocal (DAC) fluorescence microscope was used for intravital imaging following intradermal injections. Individual keratinocytes expressing hMGFP were readily visualized in vivo and initially appeared to preferentially express in the stratum granulosum and subsequently migrate to the stratum corneum over time. Fluorescence microscopy of frozen skin sections confirmed the patterns observed by intravital imaging. Intravital imaging with the DAC microscope is a noninvasive method for probing spatiotemporal control of gene expression and should facilitate development and testing of new nucleic acid delivery technologies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group
    Loading ...
    Support Center