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J Vis. 2010 Feb 11;10(2):8.1-17. doi: 10.1167/10.2.8.

Real and predicted influence of image manipulations on eye movements during scene recognition.

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Bradford School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK.


In this paper, we investigate how controlled changes to image properties and orientation affect eye movements for repeated viewings of images of natural scenes. We make changes to images by manipulating low-level image content (such as luminance or chromaticity) and/or inverting the image. We measure the effects of these manipulations on human scanpaths (the spatial and chronological path of fixations), additionally comparing these effects to those predicted by a widely used saliency model (L. Itti & C. Koch, 2000). Firstly we find that repeated viewing of a natural image does not significantly modify the previously known repeatability (S. A. Brandt & L. W. Stark, 1997; D. Noton & L. Stark, 1971) of scanpaths. Secondly we find that manipulating image features does not necessarily change the repeatability of scanpaths, but the removal of luminance information has a measurable effect. We also find that image inversion appears to affect scene perception and recognition and may alter fixation selection (although we only find an effect on scanpaths with the additional removal of luminance information). Additionally we confirm that visual saliency as defined by L. Itti and C. Koch's (2000) model is a poor predictor of real observer scanpaths and does not predict the small effects of our image manipulations on scanpaths.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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