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J Biomed Opt. 2010 Mar-Apr;15(2):026029. doi: 10.1117/1.3386055.

Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery.

Author information

1
Stanford University School of Medicine, Clark Center for Biomedical Engineering and Science, Stanford, California 94305, USA. jonliu@stanfordalumni.org

Abstract

A fluorescence confocal microscope incorporating a 1.8-mm-diam gradient-index relay lens is developed for in vivo histological guidance during resection of brain tumors. The microscope utilizes a dual-axis confocal architecture to efficiently reject out-of-focus light for high-contrast optical sectioning. A biaxial microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanning mirror is actuated at resonance along each axis to achieve a large field of view with low-voltage waveforms. The unstable Lissajous scan, which results from actuating the orthogonal axes of the MEMS mirror at highly disparate resonance frequencies, is optimized to fully sample 500x500 pixels at two frames per second. Optically sectioned fluorescence images of brain tissues are obtained in living mice to demonstrate the utility of this microscope for image-guided resections.

PMID:
20459274
PMCID:
PMC2869369
DOI:
10.1117/1.3386055
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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