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J Vet Sci. 2010 Jun;11(2):133-42.

Evaluation of infectivity and transmission of different Asian foot-and-mouth disease viruses in swine.

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Plum Island Animal Disease Center, North Atlantic Area, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, PO Box 848, Greenport, NY 11944-0848, USA.


Most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) display a broad host range. Since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of PanAsia topotype FMDV serotype O has caused epidemics in the Far East, Africa, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout Europe and Asia. In contrast, there are several FMDV isolates that exhibit a more restricted host range. A Cathay topotype isolate of FMDV serotype O from the 1997 epizootic in Taiwan (O/TAW/97) demonstrated restricted host specificity, only infecting swine. Methods used to evaluate infectivity and pathogenicity of FMDV isolates in cattle are well-documented, but there has been less progress studying transmission and pathogenicity of FMDV isolates in pigs. In previous studies designed to examine pathogenicity, various chimeric viruses derived from O/TAW/97 were intradermally inoculated in the heel bulb of pigs. Subsequent quantitative scoring of disease and evaluation of virus released into nasal secretions and blood was assessed. Here we prove the usefulness of this method in direct and contact inoculated pigs to evaluate infectivity, pathogenicity and transmission of different Asian FMDV isolates. Virus strains within the Cathay topotype were highly virulent in swine producing a synchronous disease in inoculated animals and were efficiently spread to in-contact naïve pigs, while virus strains from the PanAsia topotype displayed more heterogeneous properties.

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