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Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Jun;20(6):545-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2010.03318.x. Epub 2010 Apr 23.

The effect of a 3 : 1 volume mixture of propofol 1% and thiopental 2.5% in reducing the pain on injection of propofol in children.

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Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32207, USA.



In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, our primary objective was to assess the effect of a 3 : 1 mixture of propofol and thiopental in reducing pain on injection in children. Our hypothesis was that a 3 : 1 mixture of propofol and thiopental (treatment) would reduce the incidence of pain on injection to 20% compared to the expected incidence of 40% in the control group of an 11 : 1 mixture of propofol and 2% lidocaine.


Study subjects were patients 12-17 years old who were scheduled to undergo surgery and general anesthesia. Pain was assessed by a single-blinded observer present in the operating room. The major statistical method used in the analysis was multiple logistic regression.


Among the 164 children analyzed, 96 patients (58.5%) were male. The average age was 14.3 (sd = 1.65). The incidence of pain in the control group was 32.1% (26/81), compared to 25.3% (21/83) in the treatment group. The logistic regression analysis showed that there was not sufficient evidence that the treatment group was better than control group in reducing pain (P = 0.24). There were no significant differences in postoperative recovery time, nausea, vomiting, or blood pressure between the two groups (all P values >0.10).


There was not sufficient evidence to show that a 3 : 1 mixture of propofol and thiopental was better than an 11 : 1 volume admixture of propofol and lidocaine in reducing the incidence of pain on injection to 20%.

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