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Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010 May;137(5):615-622.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.12.021.

In-vitro orthodontic bond strength testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Department of Orthodontics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.



The aims of this study were to systematically review the available literature regarding in-vitro orthodontic shear bond strength testing and to analyze the influence of test conditions on bond strength.


Our data sources were Embase and Medline. Relevant studies were selected based on predefined criteria. Study test conditions that might influence in-vitro bond strength were independently assessed by 2 observers. Studies reporting a minimum number of test conditions were included for meta-analysis by using a multilevel model with 3 levels, with author as the highest level, study as the second level, and specimens in the study as the lowest level. The primary outcome measure was bond strength.


We identified 121 relevant studies, of which 24 were included in the meta-analysis. Methodologic drawbacks of the excluded studies were generally related to inadequate reporting of test conditions and specimen storage. The meta-analysis demonstrated that 3 experimental conditions significantly affect in-vitro bond strength testing. Although water storage decreased bond strength on average by 10.7 MPa, each second of photopolymerization time and each millimeter per minute of greater crosshead speed increased bond strength by 0.077 and 1.3 MPa, respectively.


Many studies on in-vitro orthodontic bond strength fail to report test conditions that could significantly affect their outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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