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J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;71(9):1125-30. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05086blu. Epub 2010 Apr 20.

A randomized controlled trial of antidepressant continuation for major depression following traumatic brain injury.

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Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.



This study examines whether continuation therapy with citalopram can prevent a relapse following remission of major depression due to traumatic brain injury.


After 65 subjects with DSM-IV-diagnosed major depression following traumatic brain injury were treated with open-label citalopram (20 mg to 50 mg/d), 25 subjects (38.5%) met criteria for remission. Of those, 21 (84.0%) were randomly assigned to either same-dose citalopram or placebo and followed monthly over 40 weeks. Remission was defined as a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score of ≤ 7 or a Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement rating of "much improved" or better. The main outcome variable was the presence of relapse, as defined by meeting criteria for major depressive episode according to the DSM-IV and an HDRS score ≥ 16. Data were collected from February 16, 2005, to May 5, 2008.


Ten subjects were randomly assigned to citalopram and 11 to placebo. There were 3 dropouts, including 1 for adverse drug effects (diarrhea). Relapse occurred in 11 subjects (52.4%), with a mean ± SD time to relapse of 23.52 ± 16.6 weeks. The groups did not differ in relapse rates (drug: 50.0% [5/10] vs placebo: 54.5% [6/11], Fisher exact test, P = .835) or time to relapse (log rank test χ² = 0.148, P = .700).


The present study suggests important limitations of continuation pharmacotherapy in the prevention of relapse of major depression following traumatic brain injury.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT00162916.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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