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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 May;82(5):930-6. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0676.

Japanese encephalitis in travelers from non-endemic countries, 1973-2008.

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Arboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA.


Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a severe disease and a risk for travelers who visit JE-endemic countries. We reviewed all published JE cases in travelers from non-endemic areas from 1973 through 2008, and assessed factors related to risk of infection. There were 55 cases that occurred in citizens of 17 countries. Age range of case-patients was 1-91 years (median = 34 years). Ten (18%) persons died and 24 (44%) had mild to severe sequelae. In a detailed risk assessment of 37 case-patients, 24 (65%) had spent > or = 1 month in JE-endemic areas, and most had factors identified that may have increased infection risk. The estimate of overall JE risk was low, < 1 case/1 million travelers to JE-endemic countries. Nonetheless, for each traveler, a careful assessment of itinerary and activities, a decision on vaccination, and information on mosquito precautions are needed to reduce the risk of this disease.

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