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Psychol Bull. 2010 May;136(3):351-74. doi: 10.1037/a0018807.

Compassion: an evolutionary analysis and empirical review.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of California-Berkeley, CA, USA. jgoetz@middlebury.edu

Abstract

What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate 3 evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct appraisal processes attuned to undeserved suffering; distinct signaling behavior related to caregiving patterns of touch, posture, and vocalization; and a phenomenological experience and physiological response that orients the individual to social approach. This response profile of compassion differs from those of distress, sadness, and love, suggesting that compassion is indeed a distinct emotion. We conclude by considering how compassion shapes moral judgment and action, how it varies across different cultures, and how it may engage specific patterns of neural activation, as well as emerging directions of research.

PMID:
20438142
PMCID:
PMC2864937
DOI:
10.1037/a0018807
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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