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Eur Heart J. 2010 Jun;31(12):1486-93. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehq091. Epub 2010 Apr 30.

Compliance with non-pharmacological recommendations and outcome in heart failure patients.

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Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, PO Box 30.001, Groningen 9700 RB, The Netherlands.



The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the association between compliance with non-pharmacological recommendations (diet, fluid restriction, weighing, exercise) and outcome in patients with heart failure (HF).


In total 830 patients after an HF hospitalization participated in the study (age 70 +/- 11; left ventricular ejection fraction 34%). Compliance was measured 1 month after discharge; patients were followed for 18 months. Primary outcomes were the composite of death or HF readmission and the number of unfavourable days. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the association between primary outcome and compliance. Adjustments were made for those variables that were identified as confounders in the association between compliance and outcome. Patients who were non-compliant with at least one of the recommendations had a higher risk of mortality or HF readmission (HR 1.40; P = 0.01). Non-compliance with exercise was associated with an increased risk for mortality or HF readmission (HR 1.48; P < 0.01), while non-compliance with daily weighing was associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR 1.57; P = 0.02). Non-compliance (overall) and non-compliance with exercise were both associated with a higher risk for HF readmission [HR 1.38; P < 0.05(overall) and HR 1.55; P < 0.01(exercise)]. Patients who were overall non-compliant or with weighing and exercise had more unfavourable days than compliant patients.


Non-compliance with non-pharmacological recommendations in HF patients is associated with adverse outcome.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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