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J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010 May;19(3):175-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2009.03.013.

Diagnosis and management of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke.

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Department of Family and Community Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA.


Pediatric stroke is among the top 10 causes of death in children and an important cause of chronic morbidity, with an incidence of 3.3/100,000 children/year. Risk factors associated with stroke in children include cardiac diseases, hematologic and vascular disorders, and infection. Clinical presentation varies depending on age, underlying cause, and stroke location. Antithrombotics and anticoagulants are used in the treatment of pediatric stroke; however, there are no established guidelines for the use of these agents in children. In this article we review the cause, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, acute management, secondary prevention, and outcome of children with stroke. The approach to patients with sickle cell disease and Moyamoya disease is also discussed. Up to date studies to determine the optimal acute treatment of childhood stroke and secondary prevention and risk factor modification are critically needed.

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