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Exp Mol Pathol. 2010 Aug;89(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2010.04.001. Epub 2010 Apr 28.

The role of cytokines in UbD promoter regulation and Mallory-Denk body-like aggresomes.

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Department of Pathology, LABioMed, Torrance, CA 90502, USA.


Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) are found in chronic liver diseases. Previous studies showed that diethyl-1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (DDC) induced formation of MDBs and the up regulation of UbD expression in mouse liver. UbD is a protein over expressed in hepatocellular carcinomas. It is a potential preneoplastic marker in the mouse. It is hypothesized that inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in UbD up regulation and MDB formation. TNFa and IFNg treatment of HCC cell line Hepa 1-6, induced the expression of UbD and the expression of genes coding for the immunoproteasome (LMP2, LMP7, and MECL-1 subunits). TNFa and IFNg induced the activity of the UbD promoter, using a luciferase assay. The cotreatment with TNFa and IFNg induced the activity of the UbD promoter through an Interferon Sequence Responsive Element (ISRE). In addition, long term treatment with TNFa and IFNg induced the formation of MDB-like aggresomes in Hepa 1-6 cells, which emphasizes the role of inflammation in the formation of MDBs leading to the formation of liver tumors, in the mouse. Identifying the mechanism that regulates gene expression of UbD supports the hypothesis that down regulation of UbD and the proinflammatory gene expression would prevent MDB and HCC formations. Previous studies indicate that S-adenosylmethionine or betaine prevented IFNg induced UbD and MDB formations.

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