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Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(4):505-16. doi: 10.1080/01635580903441261.

Peonidin 3-glucoside inhibits lung cancer metastasis by downregulation of proteinases activities and MAPK pathway.

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Institute of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.


Anthocyanins, present in various vegetables and fruits as a nature colorant, have broad activities including anticarcinogenesis and antimutagenesis, which are generally attributed to their antioxidant activities. However, limited studies have been available concerning the inhibitory effect of peonidin 3-glucoside (P3G) for cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrated that P3G could significantly inhibit the invasion (P < 0.001), motility (P < 0.05), secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) of lung cancer cells. Meanwhile, P3G attenuated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family involved in the upregulation of MMPs and u-PA, and also inhibited the activation of activating protein-1 (AP-1) as shown by Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Thus, the inhibitory effects of P3G may be at least partly through inactivation of ERK 1/2 and AP-1 signaling pathways as confirmed by abolishment of P3G-inhibited H1299 cell invasion by overexpression of MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1). Finally, P3G was evidenced by its inhibition on the metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vivo (P < 0.001). Taken together, these findings suggested that P3G could reduce the metastasis of lung cancer cells, thereby constituting an adjuvant treatment for metastasis control.

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