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Autophagy. 2010 Jul;6(5):1. Epub 2010 Jul 1.

WITHDRAWN: zVAD-induced autophagic cell death requires c-Src-dependent ERK and JNK activation and reactive oxygen species generation.

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Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.


Ahead of Print article withdrawn by publisher. A previous report showed that the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD can induce necrosis accompanied by autophagosome formation in L929 fibrosarcoma cells. Such autophagic cell death relies on caspase 8 inhibition and ROS accumulation. Since the connection of these molecules is still poorly understood, we explored the underlying signaling cascades in this event. First, we confirmed zVAD can stimulate LC3 cleavage, beclin 1 gene expression, autophagosome formation, and ROS accumulation in L929 cells. Antioxidants, Beclin 1 or Atg5 silencing, and class III PtdIns3K inhibitors all effectively blocked ROS production and cell death, suggesting ROS accumulation downstream of autophagy contributes to cell necrosis. zVAD also stimulated PARP activation, and the PARP inhibitor DPQ can reduce zVAD-induced cell death, but not affect ROS production, suggesting the increased ROS leads to PARP activation and cell death. Notably, our data also indicated the involvement of Src-dependent JNK and ERK in zVAD-induced autophagic cell death. We found caspase 8 is associated with c-Src at resting state, and upon zVAD treatment this association is decreased and accompanied by c-Src activation. These results provide new insight into the nonenzymatic function of caspase 8. In addition to initiating proteolytic activity for cell apoptosis, inactivated caspase 8 also functions as a signaling molecule for autophagic cell death.


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