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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Jul;54(7):2965-73. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01198-09. Epub 2010 Apr 26.

Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir-ritonavir with and without nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in Ugandan HIV-infected adults.

Collaborators (190)

Mugyenyi P, Kityo C, Ssali F, Tumukunde D, Otim T, Kabanda J, Musana H, Akao J, Kyomugisha H, Byamukama A, Sabiiti J, Komugyena J, Wavamunno P, Mukiibi S, Drasiku A, Byaruhanga R, Labeja O, Katundu P, Tugume S, Awio P, Namazzi A, Bakeinyaga GT, Katabira H, Abaine D, Tukamushaba J, Anywar W, Ojiambo W, Angweng E, Murungi S, Haguma W, Atwiine S, Kigozi J, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kambungu A, Lutwama F, Mambule I, Nanfuka A, Walusimbi J, Nabankema E, Nalumenya R, Namuli T, Kulume R, Namata I, Nyachwo L, Florence A, Kusiima A, Lubwama E, Nairuba R, Oketta F, Buluma E, Waita R, Ojiambo H, Sadik F, Wanyama J, Nabongo P, Grosskurth H, Munderi P, Kabuye G, Nsibambi D, Kasirye R, Zalwango E, Nakazibwe M, Kikaire B, Nassuna G, Massa R, Fadhiru K, Namyalo M, Zalwango A, Generous L, Khauka P, Rutikarayo N, Nakahima W, Mugisha A, Todd J, Levin J, Muyingo S, Ruberantwari A, Kaleebu P, Yirrell D, Ndembi N, Lyagoba F, Hughes P, Aber M, Lara A, Foster S, Amurwon J, Wakholi BN, Latif A, Hakim J, Robertson V, Reid A, Chidziva E, Bulaya-Tembo R, Musoro G, Taziwa F, Chimbetete C, Chakonza L, Mawora A, Muvirimi C, Tinago G, Svovanapasis P, Simango M, Chirema O, Machingura J, Mutsai S, Phiri M, Bafana T, Chirara M, Muchabaiwa L, Muzambi M, Ochai R, Muhweezi D, Gilks C, Boocock K, Puddephatt C, Winogron D, Bohannon J, Darbyshire J, Gibb DM, Burke A, Bray D, Babiker A, Walker AS, Wilkes H, Rauchenberger M, Sheehan S, Peto L, Taylor K, Spyer M, Ferrier A, Naidoo B, Dunn D, Goodall R, Nanfuka R, Mufuka-Kapuya C, Kaleebu P, Pillay D, Robertson V, Yirrell D, Tugume S, Chirara M, Katundu P, Ndembi N, Lyagoba F, Dunn D, Goodall R, McCormick A, Lara AM, Foster S, Amurwon J, Wakholi BN, Kigozi J, Muchabaiwa L, Muzambi M, Weller I, Babiker A, Bahendeka S, Bassett M, Wapakhabulo AC, Darbyshire J, Gazzard B, Gilks C, Grosskurth H, Hakim J, Latif A, Mapuchere C, Mugurungi O, Mugyenyi P, Burke C, Distel M, Jones S, Loeliger E, Newland C, Pearce G, Rahim S, Rooney J, Smith M, Snowden W, Steens JM, Breckenridge A, McLaren A, Hill C, Matenga J, Pozniak A, Serwadda D, Peto T, Palfreeman A, Borok M, Katabira E.

Author information

1
Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda.

Abstract

We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir-ritonavir with and without nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in Ugandan adults. The study design was a three-period crossover study (3 tablets [600 mg of lopinavir/150 mg of ritonavir {600/150 mg}], 4 capsules [533/133 mg], and 2 tablets [400/100 mg] twice a day [BD]; n = 40) of lopinavir-ritonavir with NNRTIs and a parallel one-period study (2 tablets BD; n = 20) without NNRTIs. Six-point pharmacokinetic sampling (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h) was undertaken after observed intake with a standardized breakfast. Ugandan DART trial participants receiving efavirenz (n = 20), nevirapine (n = 18), and no NNRTI (n = 20) had median ages of 41, 35, and 37 years, respectively, and median weights of 60, 64, and 63 kg, respectively. For the no-NNRTI group, the geometric mean (percent coefficient of variation [%CV]) lopinavir area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC(0-12)) was 110.1 (34%) microg x h/liter. For efavirenz, the geometric mean lopinavir AUC(0-12) (%CV) values were 91.8 microg x h/liter (58%), 65.7 microg x h/liter (39%), and 54.0 microg x h/liter (65%) with 3 tablets, 4 capsules, and 2 tablets BD, respectively, with corresponding (within-individual) geometric mean ratios (GMR) for 3 and 2 tablets versus 4 capsules of 1.40 (90% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.65; P = 0.002) and 0.82 (90% CI, 0.68 to 0.99; P = 0.09), respectively, and the apparent oral clearance (CL/F) values were reduced by 58% and 1%, respectively. For nevirapine, the geometric mean lopinavir AUC(0-12) (%CV) values were 112.9 microg x h/liter (30%), 68.1 microg x h/liter (53%), and 61.5 microg x h/liter (52%), respectively, with corresponding GMR values of 1.66 (90% CI, 1.46 to 1.88; P < 0.001) and 0.90 (90% CI, 0.77 to 1.06; P = 0.27), respectively, and the CL/F was reduced by 57% and 7%, respectively. Higher values for the lopinavir concentration at 12 h (C(12)) were observed with 3 tablets and efavirenz-nevirapine (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0005, respectively), and marginally lower C(12) values were observed with 2 tablets and efavirenz-nevirapine (P = 0.08 and P = 0.26, respectively). These data suggest that 2 tablets of lopinavir-ritonavir BD may be inadequate when dosed with NNRTIs in Ugandan adults, and the dosage should be increased by the addition of an additional adult tablet or a half-dose tablet (100/25 mg), where available.

PMID:
20421406
PMCID:
PMC2897274
DOI:
10.1128/AAC.01198-09
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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