Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Nutr. 2010 Dec;49(8):505-12. doi: 10.1007/s00394-010-0110-2. Epub 2010 Apr 25.

Association between glycemic index, glycemic load, and fructose with insulin resistance: the CDC of the Canary Islands study.

Author information

Primary Health Care Research Unit, La Candelaria University Hospital, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.



The involvement of carbohydrates in triggering insulin resistance (IR) remains a source of controversy.


To study the relation between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and fructose with insulin resistance in a predominantly rural population in the Canary Islands.


Cross-sectional study carried out in 668 nondiabetic people aged 18-75. IR was estimated with serum glucose and C-peptide (HOMA2-IR). Nutrient intakes were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire. ANOVA was used to analyze nutrient distribution across quartiles of HOMA2-IR. Four multivariate nutrient density models (dependent variable: log-transformed HOMA2-IR) which differed only in the kinds of carbohydrates included were tested (Model 1: carbohydrates; Model 2: GI and then GL; Model 3: free fructose, other simple sugars and starch; Model 4: total fructose, remaining sugars and starch).


There was no association between GI and IR. There was a direct association between GL (P < 0.001), fructose (free [P = 0.001], total [P = 0.013]), energy intake (P < 0.001), fruit fiber (<0.001), and glucose (P = 0.003) with IR. There was an inverse association between cereal (P = 0.008) and vegetable fiber (P < 0.001) and IR. Multivariate models corroborated the association of carbohydrates, GL, fructose, vegetable fiber, and energy intake with IR. The association between GL and IR disappeared when Model 2 was adjusted by total fructose intake.


There was a direct association between fructose intake and IR. There was no relationship between GI and IR. Although a direct association of GL with IR was detected, it was attributable to the consumption of fructose.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center